This blog is my travelogue in China. The purpose is to catalog and share the experiences and let people know about the places if they don’t already know.
I started working in Beijing since December 2015. While I came with some anxiety and many misconceptions, the wonderland called China has highly impressed and charmed me. It has been a rewarding experience to visit various places of this vast country and understand the culture. This blog is an effort to capture my experiences and share them with friends. Please feel free to comment if you like/dislike any post. Feel free to let me know if you find any factual errors. I particularly like the legends associated with places.
This is an account of a two day trip to two beautiful towns Suzhou and Nanjing in Jiangsu Province of China.
It was known to me that just a day each for these two places was never going to be enough, but I couldn’t resist when the trip was announced in FCN. Something was better than nothing. I had booked a Taishan trip for the weekend before this and that got cancelled due to poor response. I was worried that this too may get cancelled. This was the first time FCN was doing this and it required booking three train tickets, Beijing to Suzhou, Suzhou to Nanjing and Nanjing to Beijing. Sabrina, the FCN contact, said she would go ahead once she had the three people who were interested in the trip, paid. Fortunately, there was no cancellation.
We gathered at Beijing Railway station around 18:00. The group size was 7 including the FCN leader, Joey. I was the only man and all others were women. The team was very diverse. Fiona – a Malaysian Chinese from Australia, Luca from Hungary, Pamela from Mexico, Martina from Italy and Christina from USA. Joey, the leader is a yoga teacher. Some of them had food at Dicos, a fast food restaurant and I packed a sandwich for my dinner while Joey got our tickets. Our train was T-109 and I was the only one from the group in my coach. I could sleep well in the middle berth for a change. Once again, the trains are excellently maintained in China and there is a large team of the Railway force on different duties. Next morning, I was up early. I had breakfast of bread, boiled egg, vegetables and Zhou (rice porridge) on the train around 08:00. We reached Suzhou at 09:40. The railway station was very large and impressive. From the railway station we took subway line 4 to Beisita, just the next station. The hotel was just across the subway station, next to the Bao’en temple. The hotel was small, but looked good. Being the only guy, I had the advantage of getting a single room while the others shared as two each per room. Though the hotel was small, it looked well maintained. The check in process took very long with the guy at the desk going through our passports very thoroughly looking for immigration stamps. We had 15 minutes to get ready and I managed to have a shower. The Bao’en temple looked impressive with a nice Pagoda, but we didn’t visit it.
Suzhou is a city in Jiangsu Province of China, to the south of the Yangtze River. It is famous for its canals and gardens and is considered as “Venice of the Orient”. The area of Suzhou is 42% water. The city is a classic combination of modern trade and ancient beauty. We walked to the first destination of the day, the Humble Administrator’s Garden (拙政园; Zhuōzhèng yuan). This is the biggest and the most famous garden of Suzhou, spread over 12.85 acres. It is listed as a World Cultural Heritage site. The Humble Administrator’s Garden was originally built in 1509 during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). It was initially a private garden of a former government officer and poet, Wang Xianchen. It is said that Wang was frustrated in his career and built a garden after retiring as a Magistrate in Zhejiang province. He settled in his home town, Suzhou, after his father’s death. Wang got inspired by a verse of the famous scholar official of the Jin Dynasty, Pan Yue, in his prose, An Idle Life, “I enjoy a carefree life by planting trees and building my own house…I irrigate my garden and grow vegetables for me to eat…such a life suits a retired official like me well”. Name of the garden is because of humility of Mr. Wang. The garden was formed upon the old relics of a residence and a Taoist (Dahong) temple. Wen Zhenming, a noted artist and Wang’s friend, wrote essays and poems on Humble Administrator’s Garden, and painted 31 Landscapes of the garden in 1533. Wang’s son lost the garden to pay gambling debts, and it has been owned by different people. It has also undergone many changes in the past five centuries.
Water is the mainstay of the garden with several bridges, pavilions, watch towers, small forests and rock formations. Joey said that as the south did not have many mountains like the north of China, people liked to have small hills and rock formations in their gardens. The hallways host furniture, crockery and furnishings from Ming dynasty. It is indeed an overwhelming experience to go around the garden witnessing one of the best examples of Chinese landscaping creativity. While we were wandering in the garden, we came to the exit very early, and Luca went out by mistake. It was not possible to come in as the security there couldn’t help as the place was under CCTV cameras. Luca said she will spend time outside exploring. We spent couple of hours in the garden. We tried some local food after coming out. I tried couple of different breads and a Zongzi (sticky rice dumplings). The food not only tasted good, but was very good looking. The street had many flower sellers who sold jasmine and magnolia flowers.
The next site to visit was Huqiu Park, or Tiger Hill. We took a bus from the Humble administrator’s garden to Huqiu Park and the journey was about half an hour. Su Shi (960-1279), s famous Song Dynasty poet, said, ‘It is a lifelong pity if having visited Suzhou you did not visit Tiger Hill.’ This explains the kind of beauty the Tiger Hill is. This park also has many gardens, canals, watch towers, bridges and other historical monuments but the highlight is the Tiger Hill Pagoda of the Yunyan temple. The pagoda is octagonal and has seven floors with a total height of 47 meters. It began tilting over 400 years ago and, today, the highest point is more than 2 meters from its original position. It is also nicknamed the ‘Leaning Tower of China’, and was built earlier than the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Obviously, visitors are not allowed to enter the pagoda. We spent couple of hours in the park and took many pictures.
From Huqiu park we went to the Han Shan (Cold mountain) temple at the Maple bridge. The temple was constructed during the Liang Dynasty (502-557) and was repaired several times in the following dynasties. It is said that in the Tang Dynasty, a famous monk and poet Han Shan Deqing, took charge of the temple, and the temple got his name. Our guide Joey said that Han Shan and his childhood friend Shide both loved the same girl, a Han Shan sacrificed for his friend and became a monk. Sometime later, the firend also became a monk and joined Han Shan at the temple. It is said that Han Shan later had a troubled life and moved across many monasteries.
Famous Tang Dynasty poet Zhang Ji wrote the poem “A Night Mooring by Maple Bridge” (楓橋夜泊) upon listening the temple bells at the night.
The moon is going down
And the crows make a ruckus
The sky is covered with frost
There are maples on the riverbank
And the lights of fishing boats
Drift with the current
I fall into a sad sleep
from the monastery on Cold Mountain
The sound of the bell
Reaches the guest boat at midnight
The temple complex has many halls, tablets with poems, beautiful gardens, water bodies with colorful fish, bell towers and pagodas, the most famous being the Puming Pagoda which was added in 1995. This is in in Tang Dynasty style. The grand prayer hall has four beautiful statues of Sakyamuni facing four directions.
In the evening, we had dinner at a local place and went for the river cruise. The cruise is through beautifully lit traditional buildings, but unfortunately the windows were closed and most of us were sitting away from the windows. A girl sang and played a viola for some time and they sold playing cards with Suzhou pictures and CDs of Suzhou. The cruise was for about half an hour. We came back to the hotel and rested.
Next morning, we left at 6:00 to catch train for Nanjing. We took subway from the front of the hotel to the railway station. The fast train was at 7:30. The speed was consistently 351km/h and we reached Nanjing at 8:10. We left out luggage at the cloak room at Nanjing station, had breakfast at Starbucks and left for Xuanwu lake garden by subway.
Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu Province and was the capital city of many dynasties in ancient Chinese history. Till 1403 when emperor Zu Di made Beijing the new capital, Nanjing used to be capital of greater part of China. It is on the south bank of the Yangtze River and is famous for its history, the longest city wall and gardens.
We were at the Xuanwu lake garden around 10:30. Xuanwu Lake is a beautiful scenic spot with a long history. The name of the lake has changed several times, and is called Xuanwu because a black dragon was said to be in the lake. Xuanwu is at the foot of Zhongshan hill. There are five isles in the lake connected by beautiful bridges. Then there are temples, pagodas, pavilions, gardens, teahouses, restaurants and other attractions. The main entrance is the Xuanwu Gate. We took a picture at the gate and spread out to see the attractions. Near the gate there was a large place where the parents of eligible brides and grooms were looking for match with some charts like horoscopes. They didn’t like to be photographed. We took pictures with the lake in background. Then we moved to a small temple built in memory of a third-century Taoist scholar and mystic named Guo Pu. He was fortune teller got killed when his predictions did not work for a Chinese warlord. The shrine is surrounded by trees and large stands for people to tie red ribbons with their wishes. This is a practice in many parts of China, but this place certainly was special, with a large area dedicated for the wish ribbons. People buy them, write their wish, and tie to the trees. The writings are mostly in Chinese, but some write in English too. We went around crossing stunning bridges and scenery to reach a Buddha temple with a green and white pagoda in its premises.
A short walk to the Xuanwu lake side led us a large beautiful Statue of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva (Guanyin-Goddess of mercy or compassion). While we started taking pictures, Christina realized that she left her mobile phone at the last place, near the pagoda. Joey and Christina went back to check while Fiona, Martina and I waited for them there. It was about 11:30 when they left, and as they didn’t come for the next half an hour, we moved to the entrance gate. We saw Joey and Christina moving in a police car. Joey said that in CCTV the police saw a woman in blue T shirt picked up the left phone, but the phone was switched off immediately. For next couple of hours, they looked for the elusive woman in blue T shirt. Christina’s phone had a US SIM and there was nothing that could be done.
I ate cold cut noodles sold near the entrance for lunch. As we were losing time, we decided to skip the Nanjing massacre site and go ahead to Dr. Sun Yat-Sen mausoleum park. Fiona booked a taxi, the went to some distance and dropped at a mid-point as the road leading to the park was made in to a one way. After that I booked another taxi and he was going around in circles, trying to find the way to the park. We finally reached the entrance of the park at 14:10. The crowd was huge as we always find in tourist places in China on a holiday. There was convention happening that day and people in pink clothes had gathered in thousands.Dr. Sun Yat-Sen (1866-1925) was a great leader of the Chinese democratic revolution and the Chinese people to bring down the corrupt rule of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) and ended 2,000 years of the feudal monarchy system. He is considered to be “Father of Modern China”. He was born in Guangdong province of China on 12 November 1866, and died in 1925 in Beijing, China. Upon his death, the mausoleum was built in an area of 20 acres in the foot hill of Mount Zijin (Purple Mountain) in Nanjing, by choosing the best design among 40 proposals. It was designed by Lu Yanzhi and completed by Poy Gum Lee between 1926–1929. The place is very impressive with beautiful gardens and majestic buildings. The marble gate has three arches, and has the inscription of four Chinese characters written by him, “Tian Xia Wei Gong” (天下为公) which means “What is under heaven is for all”.
We went up to the main building where Dr. Sen is buried. There is an impressive marble statue of Dr. Sen. We saw the places around and were resting, when Joey and Christina joined. Apparently, the mobile phone could not be traced. At 16:15, we came out from the park and caught a but to the next spot, Fuzi Miao, Confucius temple market.
Confucius temple market is a street bustling with activity on the bank of Qin Huai River. On the riverbank there are many old houses. Joey said in the ancient times this area was famous for very beautiful girls who wrote poetry and sang beautifully. Men used to come seeking them. When the girls didn’t like them, they would just sing a song and send the visitors back. They also inspired many poets to create great literature. The most notable lady from here was Chen Yuanyuan. She was born to a farmer family in Jiangsu province, and on the death of her father, she became a courtesan. Chen was an important figure in the Suzhou opera. In 1642, she became the lover of the scholar and poet Mao Xiang. Subsequently, she was the courtesan of Wu Sangui, a Chinese military general. There are stories that there were wars fought for her and led to establishment of Qing Dynasty. There is a saying: “冲冠一怒为红, Punch one in anger for the beauty”. As per some stories, Chen Yuanyuan survived the fall of Beijing and reunited with Wu Sangui. There is a belief that later she changed her name and became a nun in Kunming after Wu Sangui’s unsuccessful revolt against the Qing. Historians regard all these accounts as folklore.
There were many shops selling memorabilia, artwork and local food. We tried fresh fruits in a shop where any fruit you could eat was sold for 9 RMB for half a kilogram. I don’t know how it worked, but the combo I tried, costed 38 RMB with a free container. We met Pamela and Luca, who seemed to be having a field day shopping. We visited the Confucius temple that showcases the many important events of the great philosopher’s life, as colored stone embedded beautiful murals. We were at the Confucius temple market for about an hour and left for Nanjing railway station by the subway. The journey by fast train was comfortable. Once again, the train’s speed was above 350 kms/h. We reached Beijing south railway station at 23:18, a bit ahead of the time. There was a huge crowd of taxis outside trying to get more money from the people. Joey had to go to the same direction as mine, we tried looking for DD taxi and I saw that there was long wait for DD. We negotiated with a taxi driver for 200 RMB. He made us sit in the taxi and started looking for more passengers. Luckily, I could get a DD driver to respond. But it took real long for him to reach, and when he reached us, he sped past us a couple of times. Ultimately at 00:28 we could catch him, and I reached home at 01:05, after dropping Joey on the way.
The trip to Suzhou and Nanjing was wonderful, though short. I wish to go there again leisurely. Thanks to FCN for the opportunity, Joey for her guidance and the co travelers for a great company. Christina losing her mobile phone was a disappointing event in otherwise a great tour.
This blog is about a trip to Qinghai lake and Zhangye Danxia mountains in western provinces of China.
“There are no foreign lands. It is the traveler only who is foreign”. Robert Louis Stevenson
Spring is a great time to travel in China. There was a long weekend during the May Day and I saw the FCN update about the Qinghai trip. Difficult part appeared to be the long journey, but it was certainly an opportunity. Booking, as always, was easy with FCN. We met at Beijing west Railway station on Friday at 11:00. The leader was Ada Yang and photographer was Alee. The team size was 18. We caught the train number T175 to Xining at 13:05. We were mainly in two coaches, but a bit spread out. The people in our team were from different countries. China, France, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Macau, Mongolia, Pakistan, Poland, South Korea, Switzerland and Thailand.
For those who are unfamiliar, Qinghai is a province in the mid-west China, famous for the lake of the same name. It has Sichuan and Tibet to the south, Xinjiang to the west and Gansu province to the north and west. The train journey, though was long, was very scenic. Ada, the leader had brought lot of snacks for us. One thing that I liked was a kind of spicy rusks. We played a Chinese card game “Dou di zhu” for some time. Xining is half way through the journey from Beijing to Lasha in Tibet. The distance of about 2000 kms to Xining is covered in 21h 38min. The train passes through Taiyuan in Shanxi and Lanzhou in Gansu province. The view outside was very scenic with mountains, meadows, farms and rivers including the famous Yellow River (Huang He, 黃河) which is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River. That evening, I had a set meal of rice, chicken and vegetables meals from the train catering. Sleeping was not easy on the upper berth. The slow trains in China are also as clean as the fast trains and the conditions of the coaches and toilets is excellently maintained. One difference is, the slow trains have a smoking area between coaches. We reached Xining at 10:40.
We walked out of the station and caught the bus that was waiting for us. While the bus took us to the hotel, the local guide explained about Xining and the specialties of Qinghai region. From the bus, we could see glimpses of the famous Tulou Temple on the cliffs of Beishan Mountain. Xining (西宁; Xīníng) is the capital of Qinghai Province and is the largest city in the Tibetan plateau. It was a part of Gansu province for long, and was added to Qinghai in 1928. The city was a commercial hub along the Northern Silk Road over 2000 years, and was home to the Han, Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties. Xining has places of religious importance to Muslims and Buddhists, like the Dongguan Mosque and Ta’er Monastery.
We were at the Lei di sen da hotel in an hour’s time. The hotel looked luxurious. I took a shower that was much needed after the long journey. In about 20 minutes, we walked to a restaurant in the next building. Ada said there was an introductory offer and the food was half priced. The first two dishes to arrive were of large beef bones, the only meat I don’t eat :-(. It was a bit disappointing considering the things I had read about Xining food where lamb kebabs seemed to be a delicacy. Some dry snacks and vegetables were good. A chicken dish ordered came almost when we finished and were ready to leave. After lunch, we left for Kumbum Monastery.
Kumbum monastery or Ta’er temple was about 30 minutes’ drive. It was built in 1577 to commemorate Tsong Khapa (1357-1419), founder of the Yellow Hat (Gelugpa) sect, a branch of Tibetan Buddhism. The temple complex is very impressive, with unique structures spread across the mountain slopes. The complex has many different halls like the Amitayus Hall, Great Sutra Hall, Gautama Buddha Hall, Manjushri Hall, Kalachakra Scripture Hall, The Butter Sculpture hall, Tara Hall etc. There is also Tantrik Buddhist School. Many halls have prayer places and huge, beautiful Buddhist figures. The lamps are lit with butter. The butter sculpture hall is the most impressive with very unique figures made of butter and colorful murals on the walls and doors.
Tsongkhapa, the founder of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, was born in nearby Tsongkha in 1357. According to a legend, Tsongkhapa’s father took the afterbirth and buried it where the monastery is now and soon a sandalwood tree grew on the spot. Another version has it that the tree grew up where drops of blood from Tsongkhapa’s umbilical cord had fallen on the ground. Thus, this tree is known as the “Tree of Great Merit.” The leaves and the bark of this tree were thought to bear impressions of the Buddha’s face and various mystic syllables and its blossoms were said to give off a peculiarly pleasing scent. The four-storied golden-roofed temple built around the tree is called “Golden Tree” (wish-fulfilling tree) and is considered the holiest place at Ta’er.
The whole place is very colorful and serene. The pillars are covered with brilliantly colored rugs and the praying mats are also made of silk. People offer silk shawls to the deities as a respect. Many pilgrims were seen performing hundred Sashtanga Namaskaras (a salutation in which all the body parts touch the ground) at different places.
There is an interesting figure of an elephant carrying a monkey, which carries a hare and the hare carries a bird. This is also shown in pictures in many places we visited. The figure is called “four harmonious brothers”. This is based on a Buddhist moral story. According to the legend, a bird, a hare, a monkey and an elephant lived by a large tree. They had a conflict as to who is better. Knowing this is not good, they decided to give priority to the elder ones, by comparing their age with the tree. The elephant said that the tree was already fully grown when he was young, the monkey that the tree was small when he was young, the hare that he saw the tree as a sapling when he was young and the bird claimed that he had excreted the seed from which the tree grew. So, the bird was recognized by the other animals as the oldest, and the four animals lived together in co-dependence and cooperation, helping each other to enjoy the fruits of the tree. After the story is finished, it is revealed the partridge was the Buddha in a previous life. The story is meant as an illustration of cooperation and respect for seniority.
After spending about two and a half hours at Ta’er temple, we were taken to a restaurant for dinner that was hosted by FCN along with some Australian wine.
Next morning, we checked out, had breakfast at the hotel’s restaurant and left for Qinghai lake. We had a new local guide this time, who explained some legends about the place. The travel was for three hours through very scenic route. The guide told some stories about the area. The Riyue (Sun-Moon) mountains are famous in Chinese mythology. As per the legend, in the 641 during Zhenguan Period (627-649), when Princess Wencheng left for Tubo to marry Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo, she was very sad and painful. So, the Emperor of Tang Dynasty gifted her a sun-and-moon treasure mirror and said to her that if she looked in the mirror at the boundary of Tang Dynasty and Tubo (Tibet), she would see her hometown and her parents. When Princess Wencheng reached the boundary, she took out the mirror and looked in it immediately. However, what she could only see herself. She came to realize that she was deceived by the Emperor. She was so angry and sorrowful that she threw out the mirror. The mirror was broken and the fragments were just landed on the two hills. The east half piece of the mirror faced the west reflecting the rays of the setting sun and the west half piece of the mirror faced the east reflecting the rising moon. Hence the mountain got the name, sun and moon mountain.
One more legend is about the Daotang (backflowing) River. When Princess Wencheng passed by the mountain, due to homesickness her tears dropped and became the Daotang River. Its westward flow symbolizes the princess’s resolution not to return forever. In fact, it is the only river flowing from the east to the west in China. For more legends about Princess Wenchang, see my earlier blog: Sichuan, an unforgettable experience. https://wordpress.com/post/chinadiarysite.wordpress.com/421).
Qinghai Lake (青海湖), Koko Nor (Mongolian) or Tso Ngonpo (Tibetan) is the largest lake in China. It is a salt water lake having a circumference of 360 km and depth of 21m. The current Chinese name Qinghai means Green Sea. It is at 3,205 m above sea level in the Tibetan plateau. Many seasonal rivers and streams empty into Qinghai Lake. Prior to the 1960s, 108 freshwater rivers emptied into the lake. By 2003, 85% of the river mouths dried up, including the lake’s largest tributary, the Buha River. The increasing alkalinity of the lake is said to be the reason of some of the fish species getting close to extinction.
We reached the lake by 11:00. The place all around is very well developed and there are bicycles available for rent. There is a large area developed fir the world poetry movement in 2011, and there are many mementoes installed. Then there are statues from different cultures around the world. There are also temples, and pagodas on the beach and a large statue of princess Wenchang. As you walk along the pier, you can see many sea gulls all around. There are also ferry rides, but we didn’t try. We spent about 3 hours near the beautiful Qinghai lake and had lunch in a restaurant there. We then moved to Ji hai tai, another part of the lake which is mostly a personal place of worship. Here, people offer liquor and food in small pots to the lake god to fulfil their wishes. We all were given small pots that were offered to the lake. On the way, the guide said we are going at higher altitude, Xining was at ~ 2000 m, and Qinghai is > 3000 m. They had oxygen cylinders on the bus and one person needed it for some time.
Another couple of hours journey, mostly along the Qinghai lake, led to Chaka Salt Lake. This is a large Salt Lake and for centuries has been a source of salt. It is a very beautiful area with may large salt figures. The lake is known as the “mirror of the sky”. There is very long salt bridge and a toy train that runs through the beach. We took many pictures. It was 19:30 when we left the Chaka Lake. The hotel that FCN had reserved for us for that night got offered to someone else and Ada and the local hosts had to look for a replacement. We stopped for dinner at a restaurant at Chaka town. The first four dishes that came to the table were all beef and I was almost losing my cool. We then moved to a nearby hotel which was nowhere comparable with the one we had stayed the last night. Saving grace was the electrically heated bed and the hot water jug that was provided.
Next morning, we got up early, but there was no luck with sunrise as the weather was cloudy. We were supposed to cover three places, the Qilian grasslands, Zhuoer mountain (oriental Switzerland) and Danxia. But as the journey was long, we had to drop visiting the Zhuoer mountain while we saw lot of grassland on the way. The route, which is a part of the silk road, G227 highway was very scenic. The guide told about Zhang Qian (200-114BC), a General of Han emperor Wu, was instrumental in bulding the Qingzhang road between Tibet and Qinghai when he was 70 years old. When he died, his ashes were made part of the new road as a mark of respect.
We could see the first glimpse of sun through the clouds around 7:15. The road on either side had large grasslands and distant mountains, temples and places of sky burial. The guide explained about different burial practices of the Tibetans. The Jhator, or sky burial is the noblest of all. Here a body of the deceased person is cut into small pieces and put on top of a mountain to feed the vultures and the natural elements. There are also the other practices as follows.
Traditional ground burial is rare, considered as an inferior custom. Happens mostly for deaths caused by disease or unnatural causes.
Cliff burial: this funeral rite sees the corpse protected with ghee (a form of clarified butter), salt and perfume and placed in a wooden casket. Next, the monks attending the body transport the box to a natural or man-made cliffside cavern and place it beside other remains. The elevation depends on the social status of the departed.
Cremation: For cremation, the body of the deceased is burned atop a bed of wood and straw. Depends on the availability of the wood in the region. While a commoner’s ashes are typically scattered on a mountaintop or into a river, noble ashes are preserved in clay holy objects known as tsa-tsas.
Stupa burial: Stupas are sacred Buddhist monuments built to contain holy relics or the remains of particularly holy individuals. Tibetan stupas are reserved for the likes of past Dalai Lamas and incarnations of the Buddha. The deceased is lavishly covered with rare spices and minerals before placement.
Tree burial: small wooden boxes containing the remains of a deceased child or an aborted fetus are hung around trees.
Water burial: disposal of corpses for consumption by fish follows the same reason as jhator.
The route had continuous scenes of the five colored Tibetan Buddhist prayer flags. The meanings for these colors are as follows:
Blue: air, associated with purity and healing. White: Water, for learning and knowledge. Red: Fire, life force and preservation. Green: Nature, for balance and harmony. Yellow: earth, symbolizes belonging and sacrifice.
The route also had many lambs and yaks grazing. We stopped for breakfast around 8:00. Once again, the place was known as Niu rou mian (Beef noodles). I could get the noodles in a spicy soup without the beef. As we moved further, icy mountains became closer and the sight was breathtaking! For the next couple of hours, the bus moved through very picturesque winding routes with shining icy mountains on both sides. That was a sight to remember. Though we didn’t get out of the bus, most of us were busy getting pictures and videos of the scenery outside. At the highest point, there was a large plaque on the road reminding the altitude of 4120 m.
Around 12:30, we briefly stopped at Qiyuan county to pick up some food. Alee and I tried Bauzis (steamed buns stuffed with potatoes). We also bought some large breads (mianbao).
We reached Danxia at 17:15, fortunately before they closed the tickets for the day. A place like Danxia certainly needs at least half a day, but we had to be happy with the time we had.
The Zhangye Danxia geological park in Gansu province, is a mountain range of thickly packed layers of minerals and rocks that vividly form a rainbow of colors that is unbelievably beautiful. This is also called Rainbow mountain park (张掖丹霞国家地质公园). The tourist place is divided into six viewing areas, and 2, 3 and 4 are supposed to be the best, so we started our tour with 2. Based on the imaginations of the viewer, the scenes have been named interestingly, like: Monks worship Buddha, monkeys viewing see of fire, seven color screen, dragons playing with fire, etc. There are buses to transport people from one area to the other.
The first bus journey from the ticket counter to the viewing area itself was very scenic with the colored mountains on either side. Walking to the second spot took about ten minutes. There were many steps to climb to reach to the top. The view all around was spectacular. We spent good time at point 2 and visited the different places taking pictures. We took the bus to the third platform from here. The splendid scenery of seven-color fan is the major attraction here. The last one to visit was the fourth viewing area. This is very large, and offers the best views of many formations. We were here till 19:30 when the security started telling people to leave. Before leaving, we took many pictures, tried jumps, splits and had a great time. It was almost 20:00 when we left the place and it took an hour to reach Zhangye city. Ada led us to a restaurant for dinner. The local host joined the dinner. The spread had many vegetables. After dinner, we went to a hotel to rest for some time, as out train was at 2:30. I took shower and caught an hour’s sleep before leaving. We reached Zhangye railway station at 1:00 and waited for our train.
The return journey, once again though beautiful locations, was comfortable. On the train the next day, Lucy, a Chinese girl who was our teammate, played the movie “Bajrangi bhaijan” on her iPad and some of us saw it completely. It was touching to see her getting emotional and profusely crying during the tragic scenes of the movie.
We reached Beijing West Railway station at 20:30, and it took about an hour and a half to reach home. Qinghai and Chaka lakes, the most beautiful journey from Qinghai to Danxia through the grasslands and the Himalayas, the rainbow colored Zhangye Danxia will always be fresh in my memory. Thanks to FCN for the opportunity and the friendly co-travelers who made the trip wonderful.
This blog is about my trip to Guilin, Yangshuo and Xingping in Guanxi provice of China.
“I often sent pictures of the hills of Guilin which I painted to friends back home, but few believed what they saw.” – Fan Chengda (Chinese Song Dynasty scholar)
桂林山水甲天下 – “Guilin’s scenery is the best among all under heaven.” – popular Chinese saying
The bucket list of China is long and I am fortunate to have ticked some of them. The picturesque Guilin was certainly on top of the list and I was looking for an opportunity. CET had a trip planned for the Tomb sweeping (Qingming) festival long weekend, but it couldn’t take off due to poor response. I contacted Echo, one of the CET leaders, and she suggested a private trip and helped with the logistics. The cost was going to be 2200 RMB for three nights stay and local transport, excluding the travel to Guilin and back. This looked reasonable and I pulled Hari who was equally enthusiastic. Considering the time and money, Echo suggested going by train and return by flight.
For those who don’t know, Guilin (桂林, known as Kweilin earlier) is a city in Guangxi province in the south of China. Along with Yangshuo and Xingping, it is very well known for its beautiful scenery. Guilin city is as old as 314BC, established on the banks of Li river.
We took the train Z285 from Beijing west railway station at 21:10 on 4th April 2018. As Echo had managed to book tickets at the last moment, our coaches were different. The soft sleeper was comfortable and spacious. As usual, I had to let go my lower berth to a family and take the upper one. But they left the next morning and I could come down to enjoy the view through the window. The train went through very scenic places: large fields, rivers, bridges and long tunnels. We had lunch at the cafeteria. After 19 hours journey, we reached Guilin Railway station at 16:20. We met Paul, our guide. He looked for a taxi and we proceeded to the hotel. The hotel’s name was “Memory inn” and it was at a central convenient place.
In a short time, we went around Guilin and saw the elephant trunk hill from a distance, walked along the Li river. The famous scenic area is called as “two rivers, four lakes” spot. We saw the two impressive Pagodas (Sun-Moon double towers, Riyue Shuangta) in the middle of Fir lake. Paul said they look better in the night. We walked around the Fulong lane, which was a commercial street and went to a restaurant that had more of western clients. The local beer, Liquan 1998, was impressive. Post dinner, we went around the city and came back to the Pagodas. Indeed, they looked magnificent with the lights. The whole atmosphere there was electrifying. We walked back to the hotel and rested.
Next morning, we had breakfast of noodles in the nearby restaurant. At 8:00, the car picked us up and we proceeded to Ping’an rice terrace in Longji county. The first stop was at Xiao Zhai Yao village. The village was very unique with wooden houses, streams and waterfalls. We met the local long-haired Yao women who were getting ready for a performance. Paul, being a local and a regular visitor seemed to have great rapport with them. The car then continued to Ping’an village where we had lunch. The route was winding and beautiful. It reminded me of the Western Ghat roads. Lunch in a small place run by a family, was braised fresh country chicken and rice cooked in bamboo. We were at the Ping’an rice terraces around 13:20. The view was incredible.
The Longsheng or Lonji (dragon’s backbone) rice terraces were built more than 600 years ago around the slopes of riverside mountains to facilitate growing rice. Two major highlights are: Seven Stars with the Moon (七星伴月) – seven small piles of rocks in the middle of a moon-like field, Nine Dragons and Five Tigers (九龙五虎) – nine ridges, branching off from the main ridge, which look like nine dragons bending over to drink from the Jinsha River, with five tiger-like rocks.
We left the rice terraces around 15:00 and climbed down the hill to reach Zhuang village from where we travelled to Yangshuo city by car. The dinner that evening was rice noodles with eggs and tomatoes. Paul offered to take us to the famous Impressions Sanjie Liu show which we readily agreed. The premise was about half an hour’s walk from the hotel and the show was at 20:50. Paul left after buying the tickets for us. The show is very popular and this was the second of the tree shows in the day with over three thousand tickets sold per show. Sanjie Liu is a legend of the Zhuang people. Her story became famous with a movie by the same name released in 1961. This is about a folk singer who takes on a tyrant named Mo Huairen and his hired singers. She loves a brave young man by name Li Xiaoniu. (for more details about Sanjie Liu, read: http://people.wku.edu/haiwang.yuan/China/tales/liusanjie_b.htm).
The show was like we had never seen before. Li river was the stage and the mountains were backdrops. Six hundred performers, mostly fishermen from the villages along the river, amazing use of props and lights and extremely well-coordinated dances made the show a rare spectacle. Zhang Yimou, the chief director, was also the chief director of the opening ceremony of Beijing Olympic 2008. He had creatively blended the classical Liu Sanjie’s folk songs and ethnic group culture together to present a large-scale realistic performance, well matched with the natural landscape. The show is for 70 minutes and had 7 episodes: The Prelude, Red Impression, Green Impression, Golden Impression, Blue Impression, Silvery Impression and the Epilogue. Each episode showed different images and sceneries with the ever-changing natural background and lighting.
We walked back to the hotel and rested. The hotel (WY, Wei yi zhu ti jiudian), was comfortable. Next morning, we had noodle soup breakfast and left around 8:15. It was going to be a cycling day on the countryside of Yangshuo. Paul said his daughter had holiday and his family would like to join us in the cycling trip. His wife Ruby was also a tour guide before. With one bicycle and a scooter, they took turns to ride the bicycle, while we were on our bicycles that Paul hired from the city. The trail was beautiful, going through the countryside of Jiuxian village, mostly alongside the Yulong river. The first to pass was the Jiuxian village. As it was the tomb sweeping day, we could see many people gathered at hundreds of different tombs, clearing the bushes around, cleaning the tombs, decorating, offering food and liquor to their ancestors. They burned look-alike currency notes (practice believed to be representing sending money to the ancestors), lighted candles, incense sticks and burst fire crackers. While I didn’t like such a large use of fire crackers in the serene nature, I appreciated the enthusiasm of the families to respect the ones who passed away. The trail in some places was muddy, but the advantage was that we could stop at will to enjoy the scenery.
We stopped at a small stone bridge called Xi’angui bridge and took pictures. The route had many fruit orchards, mainly with oranges. We also rested at the river side for some time and saw the bamboo rafters along the river. The next major stop was the Fuli (富里桥) bridge. This is a 500-year-old stone bridge. The spot is famous for photography, mainly among the newly-wed couples for wedding photos. The ancient bridge looks good with the hanging creepers. There are also flower gardens developed nearby, mainly to lure the wedding photo seekers. We had lunch at a river side place, once gain fresh braised chicken and vegetables with rice. We continued back cycling and came to Jinshui cave around 15:45. Paul bought the tickets and they waited outside while we went into the caves.
This was like the karst caves I had seen before with lighting effects, but had a large mud bath and hot water springs in it. We didn’t try those. We witnessed a show in the hall where different kind of performances were held. Notable one was the local performer girls choosing guys from the crowd to act like marrying them. We came out at 16:30 and started cycling towards the city, when we noticed that paragliding was happening there. We asked Ruby and Paul to help us with tickets for paragliding. We had to cycle again for 30 minutes to reach the place. The tickets costed 355 RMB per head and we spent another 199 RMB for the video that they sold us later. Though the paragliding was only about 5 minutes, it was a thrilling experience allowing us to fly above the amazing mountains of Yangshuo. It was very nice of Paul and family to have helped us and also took pictures.
When we returned the bicycles at 18:30, I feel we must have cycled more than 50 kms that day. We had not cycled so much in a day for many years. Our backs were a bit sore, but we walked to the West street after that. The west street is a happening place with many different activities. With more than 1400 years history, it is a place where one finds many different cuisines and artifacts. “Beer fish” seems to be the most famous local delicacy, but we didn’t try it. We had mango milk shake and came back to the hotel. Later we found a place for dinner where we ate rice and vegetables.
Next morning, we left for Fuli market around 9:00 by car. The market is very old, and is not only a farmer’s market, but has several things like hair cut places, traditional treatments etc. It was quite a fascinating experience to walk through the market streets. There were many places that were making and selling hand painted fans. The streets in Fuli town look ancient and the population is mostly elderly. There was a very old woman selling her own made craft balls (xiu qiu, 绣球) that are used by brides to garland their grooms. I bought one for 15RMB just out of respect for the grit of the old lady. We walked to the Li river side where I tried a steamed cake stuffed with bean paste (ci ba, 糍粑). We then walked alongside the river in the ancient village of Xingping and arrived at a point where the famous scene depicted on a 20RMB note is seen. We crossed the river on a ferry and continued walking towards the next destination. As it was already 12:30, we decided to take an electric vehicle to the place of lunch. It was an interesting journey, and we realized that the distance was long. Once again, the lunch was fresh chicken braised (third day in a row!). Eating at the riverside, while sipping Liquan 1998, was really refreshing.
After a sumptuous lunch, we started walking through the country road towards the Xianggong mountain. I was completely lost in the beautiful nature when I saw a truck carrying people stopping by, in which Hari and Paul were there and called me. I preferred walking and let them go. After about 45 minutes’ walk, I reached a fork where it was difficult to decide which way to go. I called Paul and he came in a local’s scooter to pick me. Later I realized that I was close to the entrance of Xianggong shan.
Initially, Xianggong shan was just like any other hill on the west bank of Li River in Yangshuo County of Guilin. A few years ago, a local photographer took some pictures from the top of this mountain and won a prize in an international photography contest, making it famous overnight. Since then, Xianggong shan became a popular tourist destination beloved by enthusiastic photographers. There are steps to climb, it takes about 15 minutes to reach the top. There are view pints at different levels, but the best view is from the top. Even here there were wedding groups doing photography.
The view from top of the moutain, of Li river winding around the hills and towns, is breathtaking. We spent some time there and came down. We walked to a nearby spot to take some pictures, from where the car picked us up. Paul got down at Yangshuo. It was about an hour’s drive to the airport and we reached at 18:00. The flight that was supposed to be at 21:40 got delayed due to air traffic congestion left an hour late. We reached home at 3:30 in the morning.
Guilin trip left an everlasting image of nature’s beauty in my mind. It was nice not only to enjoy the stunning locations, but also to see from close the Chinese tradition of tomb sweeping festival. Thanks to Echo for arranging the trip, Hari for his company and for enduring me, and Paul for his excellent guidance and for correcting the content of the blog.
This blog is about a hike to Dongbaishan in Zhejiang province of China.
Welcoming the New Year from Dongbaishan
“You need mountains, long staircases don’t make good hikers.”
― Amit Kalantri, Wealth of Words
Travelers society is a group tour organization just like FCN (Foreigners China) and CET (Culture exchange trip). I have been following their trip announcements with keen interest as they looked very scenic. Unfortunately, I couldn’t partake in any activity for log time as they are Shanghai based, which means additional travel for me. But I couldn’t resist when I saw the hike to Dongbaishan (东白山) was announced for the long weekend of International New Year’s Eve. I pulled my friend Satish, who lives in Shanghai to join the trip with me. Though I was a bit late, they oblige to give us the early bird price (989 RMB). I booked to-and-fro fast train tickets and reached Shanghai on Friday night. Satish was as hospitable as ever and had cooked delicious coastal cuisine.
Next afternoon we had early lunch, packed kanda phoa (rice flakes fried with onions) and sear fish fry and went to Hongkou stadium metro stop. We met the leader, Echo and the other participants there. There were two more guides, Andy and Key and the team size was 18. We left at 1:30pm. It was ~5 hours journey and we reached the hotel in Zhuji town of Zhejiang province by 6:15 pm. We went straight for dinner. Chinese dinner of rice, corns, vegetables and shrimps was delicious. The hotel’s name was Yueyue ge and the room was comfortable. After dinner we went for a walk around Zhuji town. Like most other towns I had seen, this also looked very well planned and clean. Decorative lighting on the buildings around the lake was impressive. Though some of the team members explored the KTV, we didn’t venture much, came back and rested.
Next morning, after a nice Chinese breakfast of mantou (steamed wheat bun), vegetables and boiled egg, we travelled by the bus for another hour and a half to village Liaozhai, which was the base camp of Dongbaishan. Donbaishan is 1194 meters above the sea level and is well known for windmills in Zhejiang province of China. It is also a natural reserve that’s spans more than 5000 square meters. Our trail started from the village in the foothills at 10:30 am. Our local trek guide, Mr. Jing, joined us here. This was by far the most scenic trails I had seen in China with river, several bridges and waterfalls on the way. After about two hours hiking, we took a lunch break and ate the packed lunch that we had carried from home. Though cold, it was delicious. We then carried on further and crossed more streams and waterfalls. We arrived at the top of Dongbaishan around 3 pm. Here we were given the tents, mat and sleeping bags that we had booked before. Our team chose a place next to the lake for tenting and we all got started to pitch our tents.
After the tents were ready, we went around. The mountain had many windmills installed to generate electricity. There was also a temple and a police outpost. The scene of the lake was breathtaking. Around 5pm, we witness an awesome sunset on the hills. Subsequently there was a barbeque party and everyone was in a merry making mood. Some of us, mainly the French tourists, stayed awake for the midnight celebration. There were many other people who had tented on the mountain top and were celebrating the New Year’s Eve.
Next morning, few of us got up early to watch the sunrise. We had to climb further up to get a better view. The sunrise was around 6:20 am and indeed it was an awesome view. We had the breakfast of bread, egg and porridge at 8 am and dismantled our tents. At 9:20 am, we started descending the mountain. The route now was different and even more scenic. We arrived at Liaozhai around 1 pm and Echo led us to a small restaurant for lunch. The Chinese meal had many vegetable dishes and was delicious. The village had many different varieties of noodles kept outside the houses for air drying. We got back into our bus and returned home around 8:30 pm.
I left for Beijing the next morning by high speed train and was back home in the afternoon.
Dongbaishan hike reminded me of the Western Ghat trails with beautiful sceneries without much human intervention. It was indeed a wonderful way to welcome the new calendar year. Thanks to Travelers society for the opportunity and my friend Satish for his company and hospitality.
This blog is about the visit to Longmen Ghettos and Shaolin temple in Henan province of China.
Shaolin temple has been on my wish list for long. Couple of months back I saw the trip on FCN itinerary, but it had got cancelled. I kept looking again and there it was on the weekend of 9th and 10th December. We went in a very small group, 7 people and a leader.
On Friday, 8th December, at 10.15 pm was our train from Beijing west railway station to Luoyang, in the Henan province. We met at the station around 8.30pm. The FCN leader was Queena and we had 7 tourists, Christopher Scotland, Theresa and Vincenz from Germany, Marija, Mariana and her 12-year-old son Luka from Croatia and me. I had a hard bed (three tier) which was a middle berth, and hence a bit cramped.
We reached in the morning and took a bus to the Youth hostel, where we were staying that day. As it was quite late, we hurried up and had local breakfast of bread stuffed with vegetables and hot soup at a small place nearby. Crossing the wide roads in Luoyang was a challenge in absence of controlled crossings. Luoyang seemed to be a big city.
The first spot was Guanlin temple, about seven kilometers south of Luoyang City. We took a bus to this place. Guanlin temple was built in 1596, during the reign of Emperor Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and was expanded in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). It is called General Guan’s Tomb as well.
Guan Yu is a hero in Chinese history and is the only person respected by Confucians, Buddhists and Taoists. Guan Yu was a general of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms Period. After he was murdered by people of the Wu Kingdom, his head was sent to Cao Cao, to frame Cao Cao and start a fight between the Shu Kingdom and the Wei Kingdom. However, Cao Cao realized the plot. Due to his great respect for General Guan Yu, Cao Cao had Guan Yu’s body carved from eaglewood and buried the carving and the head with great honors outside the South Gate of Luoyang City. Emperors of succeeding dynasties valued Guan Yu built the temple for him and worshiped him as God of War.
The Guanlin temple is in a large complex with many buildings and gardens. The main building houses statues of Guan Yu in different actions and paintings and reliefs of his life stories. There is also an art gallery displaying ancient steles and stone inscriptions. In the large place outside, there were people playing tops and whips (wielding a large metal whip to make a loud sound).
After seeing the Guanlin temple, we took the bus to Longmen grottoes. We were there by noon. The Longmen Grottoes are between Mount Xiang and Mount Longmen and face Yi River. This is indeed a very beautiful place that hosts thousands of beautiful Buddhist figures and other inscriptions. Though more like ruins, some of the statues are in good shape and the whole atmosphere here is very serene.
The grottoes were started around the year 493 when Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534) moved his capital to Luoyang. They were continuously built the next 400 years until the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127). The scenery measures 1,000 metres (about 1,094 yards) from north to south where there are over 2,300 holes and niches, 2,800 steles, 40 dagobas, 1,300 caves and 100,000 statues. Most of them are the works of the Northern Wei Dynasty and the flourishing age of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). Lots of historical materials concerning art, music, religion, calligraphy, medicine, costume and architecture are kept here. The different caves are named Wanfo, Guyang, Binyang and Lotus caves. The most famous Buddha statue is in the Binyang cave with Sakyamuni surrounded by his disciples and bodhisattva.
The complex has a large temple called the Fengxian Temple that was built during the Tang dynasty. This hosts many beautiful Buddha statues including that of Vairocana Buddha.
We spent some time there, and then caught the bus to our next destination, Lijingmen. The bus journey took almost two hours. We could see some unique Pagodas from the bus on the way. There is a city wall and a gate that leads to the ancient city. The street had festive look and was filled with people shopping for food and memorabilia. We had dinner in a local restaurant and retired for the day.
Next morning, we left for Shaolin temple, and Queena had arranged a large car for us. The first stop was Songyang Academy in Dengfeng. This was one of the four greatest academies for higher education in ancient China, together with Yingtian Academy in Shangqiu of Henan, Yuelu Academy in Changsha of Hunan, and Bailudong Academy in Jiujiang of Jiangxi. The Academy was an important and unique educational organization in ancient China. It played an important role in China’s educational and cultural history.
Songyang Academy, built in 484, used to be an arena of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. It was called Songyang Temple firstly, which was an arena of Buddhism with hundreds of Buddhists. From 605 to 618, it was renamed Songyang Taoist Temple. After renaming several times, it was called Songyang Academy in 1035. From then on, it became a classical education institution in ancient China. It was also one of the birthplaces of Neo-confucianism in Song Dynasty (906-1279). ( Ref: https://www.travelchinaguide.com/attraction/henan/zhengzhou/songyang-academy.htm).
The academy has beautiful architecture starting from the front gate. Then there is the previous saint’s hall with a statue of Confucius and portraits of other saints. There is a classroom with teaching equipment of ancient times. The complex has Daotong Temple with busts of ancient Chinese kings Yao, Yu the Great and a Duke of Zhou dynasty. The site also has some unique ancient trees, a book collecting tower and a large stele.
We moved to Shaolin temple next and reached by noon. Shaolin temple, or Shaolin monastery, is one of the most famous sites of Zen Buddhism and martial arts in the world. It is a large complex that hosts many interesting places. In the entrance is a large inscribed rock with a monk’s statue in a prayer (namaste) pose.
The major attractions include (source: Wikipedia) Mountain Gate (山门; shan men) (built 1735; The entrance tablet written with golden characters “Shaolin Temple” (少林寺; shao lin si) in black background by the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty in 1704).
Forest of Steles (碑林; bei lin), Ciyun Hall (慈雲堂; ci yun tang, built 1686; changed 1735; reconstructed 1984). It includes Corridor of Steles (碑廊; bei lang), which has 124 stone tablets of various dynasties since the Northern Qi dynasty (550-570).
West Arrival Hall (西来堂; xi lai tang) or the Kung fu Hall (锤谱堂; chui pu tang, built 1984).
Heavenly Kings (Devaraja) Palace Hall (天王殿; tian wang dian, built in Yuan dynasty; repaired in Ming, Qing dynasties).
Bell Tower (钟楼; zhong lou) (built 1345; reconstructed 1994; the bell was built in 1204), Drum Tower (鼓楼; gu lou) (built 1300; reconstructed 1996).
Kimnara Palace Hall (紧那罗殿; jin na luo dian) (reconstructed 1982), Six Patriarchs Hall (六祖堂; liu zu tang), Mahavira Palace Hall (大雄宝殿; da xiong bao dian) or Main Hall or Great Hall (built maybe 1169; reconstructed 1985), Dining Hall: (built in Tang dynasty; reconstructed 1995), Sutra Room, Dhyana Halls: (reconstructed 1981), Guest Reception Hall, Dharma (Sermon) Hall (法堂; fa tang) or Scripture Room (藏经阁; zang jing ge, reconstructed 1993), East & West Guests Rooms, Abbot’s Room (方丈室; fang zhang shi, built in early Ming dynasty), Standing in Snow Pavilion (立雪亭; li xue ting) or Bodhidharma Bower (达摩庭; da mo ting): (reconstructed 1983), Manjusri Palace Hall (wen shu dian) (reconstructed 1983), Samantabhadra Palace Hall, White Robe (Avalokitesvara) Palace Hall (白衣殿; bai yi (Guan yin) dian) or Kung fu Hall (quan pu dian) (built in Qing dynasty), Ksitigarbha Palace Hall (地臧殿; di zang dian): (built in early Qing dynasty; reconstructed 1979), 1000 Buddha Palace Hall (千佛殿; qian fo dian) or Vairocana Pavilion (毗庐阁; pi lu ge, built 1588; repaired 1639,1776), Ordination Platform (built 2006), Monks’ Rooms, Shaolin Pharmacy Bureau (built 1217; reconstructed 2004), Bodhidharma Pavilion (chu zu an, built first in Song dynasty), Bodhidharma Cave, Forest of Pagodas Yard (塔林院; ta lin yuan, built before 791). It has 240 tomb pagodas of various sizes from the Tang, Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties (618–1911) and Shaolin Temple Wushu Guan (Martial arts hall).
There are so many kids and adult monks practicing Kung Fu seen everywhere. One of our teammates from UK, Christopher, was keen on finding out about joining the school and with Queena’s help, approached couple of monks who were practicing there. He is a biotechnology student who was on an exchange program, and wants to lean Kung Fu after his graduation.
After seeing all the places, we witnessed a Kung Fu show by the students of Shaolin at 3pm. It was an amazing display of Kung Fu and some of the stunts showcased were unbelievable.
There are interesting theories as to why the peace-loving Buddhist monks learned martial arts. The most obvious reason should be for self-protection from bandits and war lords who attacked the monasteries looking for perceived wealth. The two different Shaolin temples, one in Henan and the other in Fujian, teach different styles of Kung Fu.
After the show that was for half an hour, we left the Shaolin temple. The car dropped somewhere mid-way from where again we had to take a bus to the railway station. That was a bit strange as we could have asked for drop to the station by paying some extra money. Nevertheless, we were in the railway station ahead of time, and had a good train journey back to Beijing.
Visit to Luoyang and Shaolin temple was a fulfilling experience, and the small team we had was very cooperative. I thank FCN for the opportunity.
This is a blog about a six day trip from Beijing to Changbai Mountains, on the border of North Korea. Many other scenic places were also visited during this trip.
As the October holidays were approaching, I had to find a way of spending time usefully. Initial plan was to visit Himalayas, but it looked difficult looking at the cost of travel. I had two options with FCN (Foreigners China), the Silk Road and the Changbai Mountain. Silk Road was going to be longer journey, and hence I decided to go to Changabai Mountain. As always, booking with FCN was easy. In few days, my colleague Dave also decided to join and booked for the trip. This was going to be a stretched bus journey. I did some shopping at Decathlon for a couple of cargo pants and a pair of comfortable shoes.
The trip was for six days and five nights, and the journey by a big bus. We were 42 travellers altogether. 34 Were from FCN and 8 from a sister Chinese company, the Elephant Travels. We were to start on Sunday, 1st October, 2017 from the Huixinxijainankou Subway station at 6.30am. Dave and I left home at 4.30 am, went to Songjiazhuang by taxi and took subway from there. We were at the destination by 6 am. Looked like couple of people were delayed, and by the time all reached, it was 7am, and we left in a few minutes after that. The FCN team had Grace as the main leader with Stella and Goksu as the other leaders, and Elephant travels had Amy (Shu Ya) and the photographer Xiaoxuan.
Day 1, Oct. 1: The journey was like we had never seen before. There were lot of cars and other vehicles on the road and we encountered frequent traffic jams due to accidents and other reasons. There were also long queues at service areas and gas stations. As per the schedule, we were supposed to visit the Bijia Mountain on the way to Panjin. But the slow traffic made the plans to be changed and Grace said we can do Bijia Mountain on our way back and go straight to the hotel. We played some games on the bus.
It was 9.45pm by the time we reached Garden hotel at Linghai. The city of Linghai looked big, but it was quite late. We were on road for almost 15 hours! Dave and I packed some food from the KFC that was next to the hotel. Garden hotel was luxurious and the rooms were quite large and comfortable. Only issue was not getting hot water for shower.
Day 2, Oct. 2: Next morning we were to have breakfast at 7am and start to the red beach at 7.30. The Chinese breakfast spread was nice. Few people were late for breakfast and we left the hotel around 8.30am (instead of 7.30am). The journey to the red beach was through very beautiful places with many streams and large corn fields. Grace told the mythological story of the red beach, which goes like this:
In ancient times, there was a Dragon king at the Bohai Sea. He had a beautiful daughter. Once he goes to meet the Jade emperor at heaven, leaving behind his daughter at the sea. She gets attracted to a boy who plays flute every night and meets him regularly. One day, she wears red dress and goes to meet the boy and they get married. When the Dragon King comes back, he becomes furious to see that his daughter has married a fisher boy. He gets the boy killed. The daughter cries so much that her tear makes the sea red.
Grace also told the stories about the Dragon King and Mazu, who is the goddess of the sea:
There are two gods in Chinese culture. One is dragon king, and the other is Mazu. Unlike other gods, Mazu was human. When she was 13years old, she found she was different from others, as she had the magic power. One day, her dad and brother went out to fish. After they left, she cried ‘daddy dead, and elder brother alive’. And finally only her brother came back.
So there are over 1,500 active temples and 100 million devotees for Mazu. People who live by fishing always pray for luck. The Chinese goddess Mazu has many names and titles. Known in different regions as Matsu, Ma-Tsu, A-ma, Tianhou, and other names, with numerous titles that include “Motherly Matriarch”, “Kuan Yin of the Southern Sea”, “Daughter of the Dragon”, and “Empress of Heaven”. Although some experts feel she may be a version of the older goddess Kuan Yin (who is better known in most western countries), Mazu is deeply rooted in the hearts of her people, especially coastal areas in the East, and is best known as the “Goddess of the Sea”.
In folk tradition it is believed that, when you are facing great difficulty, you can call her by the name “Mazu” and she will immediately come to your rescue. If, however, you address her as the “Empress of Heaven”, she will have to take time to put on her fine clothing and will be delayed in coming to your aid! (Taken from http://www.goddessgift.com).
However this is the story from Daoism. In history, Mazu’s real name is Lin Mo, who was really smart, but just a normal girl. When she died, people built a temple for her. With time, Mazu becomes a Chinese culture.
The Chinese goddess Mazu originated with the elevation of a young woman named Lin Mo Niang who had performed numerous miracles during her short life. A kind-hearted girl with a vast knowledge of Chinese medicine, she was known as a healer, curing the sick while teaching the people how to prevent illness and injury. Many of the miracles she performed involved quelling storms at sea, so it is hardly surprising that she is known as the protector of all seagoing people.
Mazu was born on a small island in the straits of Taiwan off the coast of southeastern China in 960 A.D. Her middle-aged parents, the Lins, already had six other children, only one of them a girl. Her mother prayed to the goddess of mercy, Kuan Yin, for another daughter. Hearing her fervent prayers, Kuan Yin came in her dream, giving her a flower to eat that caused her to conceive the next day.
The baby was named Lin Niang (in China the family name, or surname, comes first). At her birth the room was filled with a brilliant light and the fragrance of fresh flowers. As a newborn, she was strangely silent. Alert and healthy, she did not cry at all during the first month of her life, leading her parents to nickname her Mo (which means “silent”).
As she grew it quickly became apparent that Lin Mo was gifted with remarkable intelligence and a photographic memory. Supernatural powers were soon to become apparent as well.
One legend attributes her mystical powers to an event that took place when she was fifteen. Going with her friends to check out their new dresses in the reflections of a pool, a sea creature erupted out of the water and was holding a bronze disk out, offering it to the girls. Terrified, the others ran away, but the brave Lin Mo calmly accepted the bronze. From that moment on, she began to display unusual powers that grew daily and made her a legendary figure at a young age.
Already held in high esteem by the villagers for her healing, Lin Mo could now predict changes in the weather and could announce when it was a safe time for sailors and fishermen to set out to sea. To this day sailors from places as far-flung as China, Okinawa, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, and even San Francisco pray to Mazu before setting out and give thanks to her upon their safe return.
Marine folklore is filled with tales of catastrophes averted when the goddess Mazu, dressed in red, appeared to sailors as a warning that unseen storms were rising and that their voyages should be postponed.
Many sea goers have narrated times when the goddess Mazu appeared as a bright light on their troubled ships, arriving just in time to calm a storm and save their lives. Some said that Lin Mo could actually ride clouds across the ocean, and appear in the flesh to rescue them.
Lin Mo’s death, at the age of 28, was as significant as her birth. One day she simply told her family it was time for her to leave and that she must go alone. Her neighbors and family watched as she walked to the top of a mountain near her home.
Reaching the top, Lin Mo was encircled by clouds of dense fog, and to the accompaniment of enchanting celestial music, was carried into the heavens in a golden glow of light. Where she had been last seen, a great rainbow appeared.
In Chinese mythology the rainbow signifies the presence of a dragon, a symbol of great blessing and good fortune. The dragon is a serpent that quenches its thirst in the sea and, as a sky dragon, unites heaven and earth.
The rainbow also has special significance in Taoism – the colors representing the five Buddha families, with the color orange associated with the Bodhisattva, those who have achieved enlightenment but choose to remain on earth to be of service to their fellow humans (Taken from http://www.goddessgift.com).
That was some Chinese folklore. Let us come back to the trip. We reached the gate of the red beach by 10.40am and Grace got the tickets.
The Red Beach: The Red Beach (红海滩), located in Dawa County, Panjin, Liaoning, China, is famous for its landscape featuring the red plant of Suaeda salsa (碱蓬草). It is based in the biggest wetland and reed marsh in the world. There are three main sightseeing areas and visited all the three. The place is so large that we had to travel by bus between each scenic area. The places are well designed so that people can get the best view. Normally a long winding wooden bridge that runs through the stretch allowing people to have a good all-round view of the beautiful red beach. There are beautiful scarecrows made with coir all along the paths. The place also had many birds which is not a common sight in other places of China that I have visited. As it was a holiday, crowds were large and people were enjoying taking pictures with the scenic backgrounds and the interesting figures.
We left the scenic area around 2.20pm and proceeded towards Jilin. The distance is 555 kms and was estimated to take about seven hours. Once again, though the long journey was tiresome, the scenery around was awesome. There were large paddy fields all along the course. We could also see the beautiful Dalian river flowing along. My lunch that day was boiled corn. It was 10.20pm by the time we reached the Jilin international hotel at Jilin. Grace shared the Wi-Fi password, but we realized that the net was weak in most of the hotels. Grace also shared the next day’s program and the temperatures to be expected for every city.
It was quite late for dinner, but Grace found a place where we had dinner with dumplings and vegetables.
Day 3, Oct. 3: The breakfast time on the third day was 8 to 8.30am, which people liked. Here the breakfast had some western bread and jam too. We left Jilin at 9am to proceed towards the Red Leaf Valley at Jiaohe. We reached the place around 12.30pm. There were lot of people there ant the atmosphere was festive. We roamed around for some time clicking pictures of the autumn colors. There were supposed to be two places of interest: Qingling Waterfalls (the second biggest waterfalls in Jilin) and a lake, after some confusion and consultations, it was decided to drop the waterfalls and proceed to the lake. There were many street vendors selling interesting things from fruits, dry fish to honey and ginseng. I bought some Guniang and small apples, and also enjoyed some soup noodles. We walked again the same way to get to the bus and left for the lake. It took about half an hour to reach and we were at the lake by 2.45pm. The lake was very beautiful and fortunately there were not many people here. We spent about half an hour taking pictures and looking around, and got back to bus to start for Erdaobaihe Town, our next stop.
Once again a journey of about 5 and a half hours, and we reached our hotel “Changbai Mountain Forest Guesthouse” at Erdaobaihe Town at 8.45pm. It was early compared to the two previous days, but nowhere close to what was mentioned in the initial schedule. Grace gave the next day’s schedule, warning people that the Mountain was closed to visitors the previous day at 11am due to excess crowd. That evening we had a hotpot dinner at a place suggested by Grace. Dave and I usually went with Grace and Goksu for dinners as we enjoyed their company and it helped to communicate with the restaurants. The hotpot dinner was good. We came back to the hotel by 10.20pm and rested.
Day 4, Oct. 4: Next morning Dave and I went out for a walk. The hotel was surrounded by lot of activity and had supermarkets nearby. We came back for an early breakfast. Here, few tables were dedicated for our team with a good spread of food already kept. We left the hotel at 8am (which I felt was an improvement). We were at the gate of Changbaishan by 9.15, and there was long queue ahead of us. An hour later, we could get the bus that would take us to the point from where we had to climb the steps. We took a group picture before getting in the bus queue. After that, the group got spread out depending on the bus they caught, and there were unbelievably large crowds of people everywhere. The place we were climbing was the western slope of Changbaishan. It is said that the northern and western entrances are separated by a distance of 100kms.The mountain also extends into North Korea and the border seems to be not well marked. Changbaishan was long considered to be a source of both the Manchurian and Korean cultures. Climbing the mountain was considered taboo for most of China’s history, with violators often being beaten to death. It is a dormant volcano with a lake in the crater named Tianchi Lake and this lake is the source of the Songhua River. Last volcanic eruption was in 1702 A.D. Changbaishan is also where two other major rivers: Tumen and Yalu and many minor rivers are born.
The bus journey started at 10.25am and was for about 40 minutes. It was uphill and winding. The scenery on either side was breathtaking with some patches of snow and small frozen waterfalls on the way. There are 1450 steps to climb on the western slope and there are two tracks for going and coming. The steps were packed with people and we could hardly pace. Most of us were on top by 11.30am. To catch a glimpse of the Tianchi Lake was difficult due to the large crowds, but we managed to move to the front and stay there for some time.
The Tianchi (heavenly) lake was indeed the most beautiful part of the Changabai Mountain. At 2192 meters above sea level, it is 13 km in circumference but cannot be walked around owing to the border with North Korea (Mount Paektu). It is about 10 square kilometers in area. The Tianchi Lake is thought to be house for mythical monsters, as described in old fables. The lake provides different views during different seasons, being a snow pool during winter and a charming blue reservoir during summer. I bought a set of post cards with beautiful pictures of the mountain in different seasons. There were many photo sessions once we finished viewing the lake. We started walking down at 1pm and caught the bus to Jinjiang Grand Canyon.
There was some confusion as people were spread out, but we all managed to get on to the right bus and reach the entrance of the Grand Canyon at 2.15pm. Lunch that day was fruits eaten on the bus. Jinjiang Grand Canyon is believed to have been formed due to erosion caused by an earthquake that occurred in combination with a particularly violent volcanic eruption below Lake Tianchi. The subsequent massive overflows from Tianchi Lake over a long time, has caused the gorge, or Grand Canyon, as it is today. It was a couple of hours walk through a very beautiful landscape that consisted of deep valleys with tall rocks (lava stones) of different shapes. It seems that the rocks are named based on the respective images that they project, such as elephants, camels, seals, peacocks, etc. The wooden walk path had colorful trees also on either sides and had squirrels and different birds. After walking through the path for about two hours, we all assembled to catch the bus that took us to the place from where we had left in the morning. Though over a period of time, we all were there near the FCN bus and proceed towards out next destination, Baishan city.
The journey was about 3 hours. It was a moon festival day and the FCN leaders distributed moon cakes. Grace told the story of moon festival significance, while Jerrie gave a slight different version of the same story. She also beautiful sang a song about the moon festival. The two versions of the story were similar to the following from Lihui Yang’s Handbook of Chinese Mythology.
In the ancient past, there was a hero named Hou Yi who was excellent at archery (You can read about Hou Yi in my blog of the Long Island trip). His wife was Chang’e. One year, the ten suns rose in the sky together, causing great disaster to people. Yi shot down nine of the suns and left only one to provide light. An immortal admired Yi and sent him the elixir of immortality. Yi did not want to leave Chang’e and be immortal without her, so he let Chang’e keep the elixir. But Peng Meng, one of his apprentices, knew this secret. So, on the fifteenth of August in the lunar calendar, when Yi went hunting, Peng Meng broke into Yi’s house and forced Chang’e to give the elixir to him. Chang’e refused to do so. Instead, she swallowed it and flew into the sky. Since she loved very much her husband and hoped to live nearby, she chose the moon for her residence. When Yi came back and learned what had happened, he felt so sad that he displayed the fruits and cakes Chang’e liked in the yard and gave sacrifices to his wife. People soon learned about these activities, and since they also were sympathetic to Chang’e they participated in these sacrifices with Yi.
Another common version of the myth: After the hero Hou Yi shot down nine of the ten suns, he was pronounced king by the thankful people. However, he soon became a conceited and tyrannical ruler. In order to live long without death, he asked for the elixir from Xiwangmu. But his wife, Chang’e, stole it on the fifteenth of August because she did not want the cruel king to live long and hurt more people. She took the magic potion to prevent her husband from becoming immortal. Hou Yi was so angry when discovered that Chang’e took the elixir, he shot at his wife as she flew toward the moon, though he missed. Chang’e fled to the moon and became the spirit of the moon. Hou Yi died soon because he was overcome with great anger. Thereafter, people offer a sacrifice to Chang’e on every fifteenth of the eighth lunar month to commemorate Chang’e’s action.
The journey was pleasant, and we reached our hotel, Huixing at Baishan at 7.45pm. Grace was particular that we all should have at least one dinner together and tried to find some place. As it was moon festival, many restaurants were closed and there was no place that could hold a group of our size. We explored the restaurant in our hotel, but they were also closed. After many efforts, they found a barbecue place that had the capacity. Most of us except few were there and the party went on till 11.45pm. The beer in the restaurant was just 1RMB per bottle J. Some of the people wanted to look for a KTV after that and we walked in the deserted streets for some time. Dave and I decided to comeback after walking for about half an hour and the others said that they came back after some more time as they couldn’t find the place.
Day 5, Oct. 5: Next morning we had Chinese breakfast of different kind of steamed Man tou, vegetables, millet soup and boiled egg at the 25th floor restaurant of the hotel and left at 8am. It was very scenic drive to the next spot, the sky watching caves.
We arrived at the sky watching caves at 11am and took the customary group picture. The Wangtian caves at Benxi in Liaoning province are longest caves in the north. They are called “sky Watching caves” as there are opening through which the light enters to the cave. The main cave is 5.6 kms long. It also has three underground rivers 4 kms long. The main cave shapes like verandah, hall and labyrinth. The stalactite here forms many interesting shapes and are named after the shapes. It was indeed an amazing experience to go through the caves. The lights in the caves are in the shapes of different insects, and in many places color lights are added to create different effects. We spent almost one and a half hour walking through the caves and came out. Some of us came down via Ziplining, which was thrilling.
After coming down, we went around for some time and tried the local food. I had a corn and two boiled Goose eggs. I was eating Goose eggs for the first time. I can’t say it was tasty, but it was indeed filling.
I feel we spent long time down there. We left for the next destination only by 2.30pm and reached the hotel at Dandong at 5.40pm. The hotel Changyuan Shang wu bin guan was comfortable. It was already dark and chance of seeing across the border in day light was not possible. We met at the reception at 6pm and proceeded to walk along the Yalu River. Boating on the river was not possible as it was late.
Dandong is the largest Chinese border city, facing Sinuiju in North Korea across the Yalu River, which defines the Sino-North Korean border. It was quite a long walk from the hotel and the view of the bridge was awesome. Dandong’s Sino–Korean Friendship Bridge was bombed by the United States during the 1950-51 Korean War, as was an older iron bridge leading to North Korea. Even though the Sino–Korean Friendship Bridge was rebuilt, the remains of the Japanese-built iron bridge were left and now serve as a war monument. The other bridge is now used only for trade. We had police checking for people’s IDs during this trip.
The view of the river and the town across in moonlight was spectacular. Close to the bridge, there is a wharf with lot of activity around. We spent some time clicking photos around the bridge, and then followed the location shared by Grace to a Korean restaurant. The food was interesting and delicious. We had to squat on mats and eat. I particularly liked Bibimbap, rice with vegetables and meat with a sunny side up egg on top.We came back to the hotel by 10.30pm and rested.
Korean food for dinner
Day 6, Oct. 6: It was the last day of our trip. As we couldn’t see the bridge and across in the daylight, Grace thought we should go through the place and spend a few minutes near the bridge. Once again, after lot of persuasion, we left at 8am and the bus dropped us near the wharf. We took pictures there. Though we thought we will be there for 15 minutes, we left only after an hour. The journey took longer than expected, and we arrived at the beach at 3.30pm. It was high tide, the natural bridge between the mainland and the mountain island was under water. Shu Ya led us to the place where we caught the boat. Five of us were in the boat and each trip was 100RMB together.
Bijia Mountain is located on the coast of the Pohai adjacent to Jinzhou Port (锦州港). The total area of the spot is 8 square kilometers, among which the land area of the scenic spot is 4.72 square kilometers. The mountain has three peaks, one is higher and the others are lower, it gets the name for it shapes like a pen rack (bijia in Chinese). Tian Qiao, the sky bridge, is the path that cooects the bijia mountain to the mainland. So the mountain is also called Tianqiao Mountain (天桥山).
The legend of Tian Qiao: Long ago, three fairies went to human’s world from heaven to take people’s sacrifices every Ghost Festival. One year, when flew to Pohai Bijia Mountain, they found the place wonderful and people here are kind and lovable. The fairies saw that the island and the mainland are separated so they decided to build a bridge to link them in order to pay back. They used magic power to blow the sand and pebbles together to form a dyke. When doing so, they woke up an evil dragon who liked to swim around the island, the dyke they were making blocked his way. So they started a fight. Finally the dragon lost, but they spent too much time on it and they had to go back and left the unfinished dyke behind. Therefore, when tide came the bridge disappeared and when it went out the bridge turned up. (Taken from http://www.foreignercn.com/)
Bijia mountain is a place of Taoism. From down to top builds Zhenren Temple (真人观), Luzu Pavilion (吕祖亭), Taiyang Palace (太阳宫, the Sun Palace), Leigong Temple (雷公祠, the Thunder chief Temple), Dianmu Temple (电母祠, Temple of Lightning Goddess), Wumu Palace (五母宫), and Sanqing Pavilion (三清阁). Among them, Sanqing Pavilion is the most famous one and is a ‘must go’ spot. It is a completely stone-made but wooden-like six stories building without a single nail standing at the top of the mountain, from which visitors can have an overlook of the beautiful, vast sea. There are many statues of the Buddha and Taoist and Confucian saints in the pavilion. On the top floor there is a shrine to the God of the Creation, Pangu (盘古).
Our boat ride was thrilling; with the boatman seeming to be in a great hurry. One we reached in, we went upwards seeing the different spots and appreciating the scenery. Around 4.45pm, some of us were at the highest point, on the Sanqing Pavilion. It was very windy there and I had the FCN flag with me, which I had to secure with great effort. Around 5pm we were back at the dock, it was getting dark and the number of returning boats was less. We returned to the mainland and left for Beijing at 5.45pm.
The distance to Beijing was ~ 500kms and the traffic was very bad. We kept chatting in the group, shared puzzles to kill time. We reached Huixinxijienankou at 1.35am, after almost eight hours. I took a taxi with Dave, Hannah and Megan and reached home 2.25am.
I realized later that the SD card of my camera using which I had taken more than 1000 photos, got damaged when I shifted it back to the bag while replacing with a new one. Thus I lost all my cherished camera pictures. Fortunately I had the mobile phone as a backup and most pictures in this blog are from the phone.
The trip to Changbaishan gave me an opportunity to see many beautiful places and to make new friends. Though long bus journeys were tiring sometime, it was a very rewarding experience. The FCN organizers led by Grace were very kind and took great care of every one. Spending six days with people from many different countries and cultures was also an enriching experience. A non-holiday time would be certainly great to revisit the places in solemnity.
This blog is about the visit to Xi’an in the Shaanxi province of China. Xi’an is famous for the terracotta warriors from 210 BC.
Xi’an (pronounced as Shian) has been on my bucket list for long and the opportunity came when I saw that FCN (Foreigners China, Laowai) had a weekend trip on 13-14 May 2017.
Xi’an is one of the oldest cities in China and is the capital of Shaanxi province. It has a very rich history. The Lantian Man was discovered in 1963, 50 km southeast of Xi’an, and dates back to at least 500,000 years before the present time. A 6,500-year-old Banpo Neolithic village was discovered in 1953 on the eastern outskirts of the city proper, which contains the remains of several well organized Neolithic settlements carbon dated to 5600–6700 years ago. The most significant finding was in 1974 when the Terracotta army was discovered.
Fifteen of us traveled by the regular train from Beijing to Xi’an on the evening of Friday, 12th May 2017. It was a coupe while going and I had Andre in the same room. We reached Xi’an railway station at 8.00 am and walked to the hotel called youth hostel. The youth hostel itself is like a museum with so many antiques displayed. The rooms were old, but comfortable.
We freshened up and left for our first site, Shaanxi history museum. We had breakfast (vegetables and meat in a soup and fried bread) on the way in a small eatery. We were at the museum by 10.30am. Grace, our leader, got the tickets. The queue had fogging system for cooling. There were many hawkers selling ice candies and other things.
The Shaanxi history museum is regarded as “the pearl of ancient dynasties and house of Chinese treasures”. It gives an indication of the thousands of years of Chinese history and the grand ancient cultures. The building itself is very impressive and the different halls have the relics from prehistoric to the different dynasties that ruled China. The main artefacts are from the Zhou, Qin, Han and Tang dynasties. The items are well preserved and well presented. The museum shop also has a great collection to offer. After the museum, we walked to the Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Dayan Pagoda). The street had interesting bronze sculptures including that of Statue of Lady Gongsun, a sword-dance master of the Tang Dynasty.
As the symbol of the ancient Xian, Big Wild Goose Pagoda (also called Giant Wild Goose Pagoda) is a well-preserved heritage building and is a holy place for Buddhists. Originally built in 652 during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), it functioned to collect Buddhist materials that were taken from India by Xuanzang (Hsüan-tsang).
Xuanzang started off from Chang’an (the ancient Xian), along the Silk Road and through deserts, finally arriving in India, the cradle of Buddhism. Enduring 17 years and traversing 100 countries, he obtained Buddha figures, 657 kinds of sutras, and several Buddha relics. With the permission of Emperor Gaozong (628-683), Xuanzang, as the first abbot (monk superior) of Da ci’en Temple, supervised the building of a pagoda inside it. With the support of the emperor, he asked 50 disciples into the temple to translate Sanskrit in sutras into Chinese, totaling 1,335 volumes, which heralded a new era in the history of translation. Based on the journey to India, he also wrote a book entitled ‘Journey to the West (西遊記)’ in the Tang Dynasty, to which scholars have given great importance.
While the team went around the site, I bought entry ticket to the pagoda and climbed the seven stories. Each level has different artefacts and windows to view of all four sides. The view from the top is amazing and showcases the beautiful town planning of the surrounding areas. On the walls are engraved fine statues of Buddha by the renowned artist Yan Liben of the Tang Dynasty. Steles by noted calligraphers also grace the pagoda.
There is a legend for why it is called Big Wild Goose Pagoda. According to ancient stories of Buddhists, there were two branches, for one of which eating meat was not a taboo. One day, they couldn’t find meat to buy. Upon seeing a group of big wild geese flying by, a monk said to himself: ‘Today we have no meat. I hope the merciful Bodhisattva will give us some.’ At that very moment, the leading wild goose broke its wings and fell to the ground. All the monks were startled and believed that Bodhisattva showed his spirit to order them to be more pious. They established a pagoda where the wild goose fell and stopped eating meat. Thus the pagoda was known as Wild Goose Pagoda. In the complex is the big Da ci’en temple built in 648 to remember the dead queen. The Buddha statues are very beautiful and so are the other carvings. The temple complex has a huge bell tower and a Gong. The complex also has beautiful garden. There is a large shop that sells Buddhist artefacts.
In the entrance of the pagoda is a large statue of Xuanzang, commemorating his immense contribution to understanding India and Buddhism. On the way back, I bought a large painting of Buddha done on felt like cloth from the street.
We took the subway to out next destination, the Xi’an city wall. We were there in about half an hour. Xian City Wall is the most complete city wall that has survived in China, as well being one of the largest ancient military defensive systems in the world. When Zhu Yuanzhang, the first Emperor of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), captured Huizhou, a monk named Zhu Sheng advised him that he should ‘build high walls, store enough food supplies and take time to be an Emperor,’ so that he could fortify the city and unify the other states. After the establishment of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang followed his advice and began to enlarge the wall built initially during the old Tang Dynasty (618 – 907), forming today’s Xian City Wall. The wall now is 12 meters tall, 12-14 meters wide at the top and 15-18 meters thick at the bottom. It is 13.7 kilometers long with a deep moat surrounding it.
We went up the wall and took many pictures. I tried the bicycle ride. The wall also holds plays and operas and that day they were going to have one. After spending about 2 hours there, we took two taxis and went to the Beiyuanmen Muslim street.
The Beiyuanmen Muslim street is a wonderful area full of food and life. It is said that in the past, foreign diplomatic envoys and merchants lived here. Then they married and had children, so gradually the population increased. Today, most of the residents here are the descendants of those immigrants. All the Muslims here are the devout followers of Islam and form a tight knit community, which maintains its own culture and traditions. They all know each other as they were childhood friends.
The variety of food and snacks on the street was amazing. Grace, Andre and I stayed together and went around trying different things. The whole atmosphere was festive and electrifying with so many people trying out variety of snacks and handicrafts. Andre enjoyed eating the barbecue crabs and I devoured some barbecue lamb. This street also had a Bangaldeshi artist showcasing the Arabic sand art and he happened to be the brother of one I met at Chengdu. We roamed around the Muslim street till 10pm and caught taxis back to the hotel. I joined the hotel owner and few others for beer that night. It was interesting to note that the young owner was an avid art collector who was very knowledgeable about antiques.
Next morning, we left around 7.30am, had breakfast on the way and took a public transport bus to reach the place where the terracotta army museum is located. It was a good two hours journey and we got down at the last stop. It was a rainy day. Grace got the tickets. Andre and I wanted to have a guide to get the best out of the place and hired an English speaking guide for 200 RMB. She was very good. She explained the exhibits well and clarified our doubts. It was a rainy day and she said it was manufactured rain to cool down the place.
The terracotta army museum is at the foothill of Li Mountain (Lishan). For authenticity, I am quoting the National Geographic here:
Workers digging a well outside the city of Xi’an, China, in 1974 struck upon one of the greatest archaeological discoveries in the world: a life-size clay soldier poised for battle.
The diggers notified Chinese authorities, who dispatched government archaeologists to the site.
They found not one, but thousands of clay soldiers, each with unique facial expressions and positioned according to rank. And though largely gray today, patches of paint hint at once brightly colored clothes. Further excavations have revealed swords, arrow tips, and other weapons, many in pristine condition.
The soldiers are in trenchlike, underground corridors. In some of the corridors, clay horses are aligned four abreast; behind them are wooden chariots.
The terra-cotta army, as it is known, is part of an elaborate mausoleum created to accompany the first emperor of China into the afterlife, according to archaeologists.
Ying Zheng took the throne in 246 B.C. at the age of 13. By 221 B.C. he had unified a collection of warring kingdoms and took the name of Qin Shi Huang Di—the First Emperor of Qin. During his rule, Qin standardized coins, weights, and measures; interlinked the states with canals and roads; and is credited for building the first version of the Great Wall.
According to writings of court historian Siam Qian during the following Han dynasty, Qin ordered the mausoleum’s construction shortly after taking the throne. More than 700,000 laborers worked on the project, which was halted in 209 B.C. amid uprisings a year after Qin’s death.
To date, four pits have been partially excavated. Three are filled with the terra-cotta soldiers, horse-drawn chariots, and weapons. The fourth pit is empty, a testament to the original unfinished construction.
Archaeologists estimate the pits may contain as many as 8,000 figures, but the total may never be known.
Qin’s tomb itself remains unexcavated, though Siam Qian’s writings suggest even greater treasures.
“The tomb was filled with models of palaces, pavilions and offices as well as fine vessels, precious stones and rarities,” reads a translation of the text.
The account indicates the tomb contains replicas of the area’s rivers and streams made with mercury flowing to the sea through hills and mountains of bronze. Precious stones such as pearls are said to represent the sun, moon, and other stars.
Modern tests on the tomb mound have revealed unusually high concentrations of mercury, lending credence to at least some of the historical account.
Chinese archaeologists are also using remote-sensing technology to probe the tomb mound. The technique recently revealed an underground chamber with four stairlike walls. An archaeologist working on the site told the Chinese press that the chamber may have been built for the soul of the emperor.
Experimental pits dug around the tomb have revealed dancers, musicians, and acrobats full of life and caught in mid-performance, a sharp contrast to the military poses of the famous terra-cotta soldiers.
But further excavations of the tomb itself are on hold, at least for now.
It was an overwhelming experience to witness a unique part of the world history. One might wonder why these were made. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife. The warriors were supposed to be copied from real soldiers and the height is based on the rank. Other features also indicate their rank. The figures were colored when they were made.
A translation from the Chinese, Sima Qian Shiji volume 6 reads:
When the First Emperor ascended the throne, the digging and preparation at Mount Li began. After he unified his empire, 700,000 men were sent there from all over his empire. They dug down deep to underground springs, pouring copper to place the outer casing of the coffin. Palaces and viewing towers housing a hundred officials were built and filled with treasures and rare artifacts. Workmen were instructed to make automatic crossbows primed to shoot at intruders. Mercury was used to simulate the hundred rivers, the Yangtze and Yellow River, and the great sea, and set to flow mechanically. Above, the heaven is depicted, below, the geographical features of the land. Candles were made of “mermaid”‘s fat which is calculated to burn and not extinguish for a long time. The Second Emperor said: “It is inappropriate for the wives of the late emperor who have no sons to be free”, ordered that they should accompany the dead, and a great many died. After the burial, it was suggested that it would be a serious breach if the craftsmen who constructed the tomb and knew of its treasure were to divulge those secrets. Therefore, after the funeral ceremonies had completed, the inner passages and doorways were blocked, and the exit sealed, immediately trapping the workers and craftsmen inside. None could escape. Trees and vegetation were then planted on the tomb mound such that it resembled a hill.
There is also lot of reconstruction work going on. The warriors and the horses are rebuilt with many broken pieces. The museum also showcases the technology that was used in daily life and machines that were used 2000 years ago. The street behind the museum sold skins of many wild animals.
We left the place in the afternoon and returned to the hotel to pick our bags and go to the railway station. Unlike the onward journey, the return had a hard bed sleeper. As one of my teammates wanted to be with her friend, I changed the coach. Sady, one of my teammate, was there and introduced me to some new friends. I had an instant connect with Gogo. Thanks to FCN for the opportunity to visit Xi’an. Once again, Grace was excellent in organizing and leading the trip.
I reached Beijing the next morning with fond memories of the Xi’an tour.